concept of God (Allah) in Islam is enunciated by God Himself
in His revelation, the Holy Qur'an. It is expanded upon by the Final
Prophet of God, Muhammad [peace upon him and his household]
and further clarified by the successor to the Prophet, the Imam Ali.
The Holy Qur'an
the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.
Say: He, Allah, is One.
Allah is He on Whom all depend.
He begets not, nor is He begotten.
And none is like Him.
The Holy Qur'an, translated by M. H. Shakir, Chapter
112, verses 1-4]
"Praise belongs to God, who
in His firstness was solitary and in His
beginninglessness was tremendously exalted through divinity and
supremely great through His magnificence and power. He
originated that which He produced and brought into being that
which He created without a model preceding anything that He
created. Our Lord, the eternal, unstitched (the heavens and the
earth) through the subtlety of His lordship and the knowledge within
His omniscience, created all that He created through the laws of
His power, and split (the sky) through the light of dawn. So none
changes His creation, none alters His handiwork, 'none repels His
law' (XIII, 45) , none rejects His command. There is no place of
rest away from His call, no cessation to His dominion and no
interruption of His term. He is the truly existent from the first and
the truly enduring forever. He is veiled from His creatures by His
light in the high horizon, in the towering might, and in the lofty
dominion. He is above all things and below all things. So He
manifested Himself to His creation without being seen, and He
transcends being gazed upon. He wanted to be distinguished by the
profession of Unity when He withdrew behind the veil of His light,
rose high in His exaltation and concealed Himself from His creation.
"He sent to them messengers
so they might be His conclusive
argument against His creatures and so His messengers to them
might be witnesses against them. He sent among them prophets
bearing good tidings and warning, 'that whosoever perished might
perish by a clear sign, and by a clear sign he might live who lived'
(VIII, 42) and that the servants might understand of their Lord that
of which they had been ignorant, recognise Him in His Lordship
after they had denied (it) and profess His Unity in His divinity after
they had stubbornly resisted."
[Source: Muhammad Baqir Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 4, pp.
"Praise belongs to God,
who did not originate from anything, nor
did He bring what exists into being from anything. His
beginninglessness is attested to by the temporality of things, His
power by the impotence with which He has branded them, and His
everlastingness by the annihilation which He has forced upon them.
No place is empty of Him that He might be perceived through
localization, no object is like Him that He might be described by
quality, nor is He absent from anything that He might be known
"He is distinct in attributes
from all that He has originated,
inaccessable to perception because of the changing essences He
has created (in things), and outside of all domination by changing
states because of grandeur and tremendousness. Forbidden is His
delimitation to the penetrating acumen of sagacities, His description
to the piercing profundities of thought and His representation to the
searching probes of insight.
"Because of His tremendousness
places encompass Him not,
because of His majesty measures gauge Him not, and because of
His grandeur standards judge Him not. Impossible is it for
imaginations to fathom Him, understandings to comprehend Him or
minds to imagine Him. Powers of reason with lofty aspiration
despair of contriving to comprehend Him, oceans of knowledge run
dry without alluding to Him in depth , and the subtleties of
disputants fall from loftiness to pettiness in describing His power.
"He is One, not in terms of
number; Everlasting, without duration;
Standing, without supports. He is not of a kind that other kinds
should be on a par with Him, nor an object that objects should be
similar to Him, nor
like things that attributes
should apply to Him. Powers of reason go
astray in the waves of the current of perceiving Him, imaginations
are bewildered at encompassing the mention of His
beginninglessness, understandings are held back from becoming
conscious of the description of His power, and minds are drowned
in the depths of the heavens of His kingdom.
"He is Master over (giving)
bounties, Inaccessable through
Grandeur, and Sovereign over all things. Time makes Him not old,
nor does description encompass Him. Humbled before Him are the
firmest of obduracies in the limits of their constancy, and submitted
to Him are the most unshakeable of the cords in the extremity of
their towering regions .
"Witness to His Lordship is
the totality of kinds, to His Power their
incapacity, to His eternity their createdness, and to His permanence
their passing into extinction. So they possess no place of refuge
from His grasp of them, no exit from His encompassing them, no
way of veiling themselves from His enumeration of them and no
way of avoiding His power over them. Sufficient is the perfection of
His making them as a sign, His compounding of their (natural)
constitutions as a proof, the temporal origin of their natures as (a
reason for His) eternity, and the creation's laws governing them as a
lesson . No limit is attributed to Him, no similitude struck for Him
and nothing veiled from Him. High indeed is He exalted above the
striking of similitudes and above created attributes!
"And I testify that there is
no god but He, having faith in His
Lordship and opposing whoso denies Him; and I testify that
Muhammad (PBUH) is His servant and messenger, residing in the
best lodging-place, having passed from the noblest of loins and
immaculate wombs, extracted in lineage from the noblest of mines
and in origin from the most excellent of plantations, and (derived)
from the most inaccessible of summits and the most glorious roots,
from the tree from which God fashioned His prophets and chose
His trusted ones: (a tree) of excellent wood, harmonious stature,
lofty branches, flourishing limbs, ripened fruit, (and) noble interior,
implanted in generosity and cultivated in a sacred precinct. There it
put forth branches and fruit, became strong and unassailable, and
then made him (the prophet Muhammad PBUH) tall and eminent,
until God, the Mighty and Majestic, honoured him with the Faithful
Spirit , the Illuminating Light , and the Manifest Book . He
subjected to him Buraq and the angels greeted him. By means of
him He terrified the devils, overthrew the idols and the gods (who
were) worshipped apart from Him. His prophet's Wont (sunnah)is
integrity, his conduct is justice and his decision is truth. He
proclaimed that which was commanded by his Lord , and he
delivered that with which he was charged until he made plain his
mission through the profession of Unity and made manifest among
the creatures that there is no god but God alone and that He has no
associate; until His Oneness became pure and His lordship
unmixed. God made manifest his argument through the profession
of His Unity and He raised his degree with submission (al-islam).
And God, the Mighty and Majestic, chose for His prophet what
was with Him of repose, degree and means - upon him and upon
his pure household be God's peace."
[Source: Muhammad Baqir Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 4, pp.